The dynamics of oxygen production and utilization in a pond are complex and can be difficult to determine. Plankton and algae in the water can produce some oxygen, but only the organism you are raising in a pond or lake is underestimated by basing oxygen consumption.
This leads to the need for adequate aeration, and it has been shown that a fountain style or aerator paddle is much more efficient than an aerator, especially in saltwater. Pond aeration can distinguish between marshy, smelly dirt and healthy, thriving aquaculture with high production.
The solubility of dissolved oxygen in water varies continuously and it can be difficult to estimate how much a given body will require aeration, but the rule of thumb is that a smaller body, or a polyculture, will require more aeration.
In using lake fountains, it is best to place them on the shore of the lake or pond where the prevailing winds are coming from. It carries the droplets over water and each drop brings its own cargo of oxygen.
Aeration should be given special attention during the hottest months of the year, as water carries less oxygen as it is warmer. Other factors that may increase the need for aeration are algae dying, sick fish and increased concentrations of ammonia or nitrates. These may require installation of portable aerators in times of stress of aquaculture